Colloidal silver uses positively charge silver ions, which bond to the negatively charged bacterial cell walls causing cell death (Liu et al., 1994). Silver has no oxidizing capacity but is involved in rendering various enzymes inactive by binding to thiol (—SH) groups in a cell.
The active material is silver in Nano form and in 1-10 nm size.
Silver is completely stable carrier in form of suspension.
Its stability has been tested in accelerated and long terms studies.
Silver is known antibacterial agent.
Its nanoparticles can kill all kinds of bacteria in very low concentration (about 5 ppm).
It is also an antiviral and can fight against various kinds of viruses.
Silver acts as a photo catalyst.
In the presence of air oxygen, it can produce free radicals, and these free radicals can effect the micro organisms and kill them.
In the high aquatic environment like water without air oxygen, silver nanoparticles penetrate into bacteria.
In this case, silver can affect the di-sulficdic bands, between protein complexes.
Thus the 3-d form of protein changes and it cannot perform as an enzyme.
In case this happens in bacteria cell wall, the selective permeability of cell wall changes, therefore, bacteria swallows and will destroy.
If this process occurs in energy cycle enzymes, then, the production of ATP stops and the lack of energy will kill microorganisms.
On viruses, the glycoprotein knobs of viral envelop, that are virus antigenic receptors, has a di-sulfic band.
This band could be attacked by silver nanoparticles and can destroy the virus and prevents its attachment with host cell.
With this mechanism of actions, silver nanoparticles can be used instead of all antibacterial agents and in preventive form; it can be even used as a vaccine.
In the absence of pathogenic microorganisms and their stress on immune system and other systems of poultry, livestock, and aquatics, the produced energy can be used to make more tissues and especially muscular tissues.
This can improve weight gaining in poultry, livestock and aquatics.
It has been seen and experimented that use of silver nanoparticles probably can reduce the lipid and cholesterol contents of meat and can increase the protein contents of meat.